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Any council which is the local authority for the purposes of the Local Authority Social Services Act 1970 may cause to be buried or cremated the body of any deceased person who immediately before his death was being provided with accommodation under Part 1 of the Care Act 2014. The appropriate Minister may by regulations make provision for the purpose of preventing, protecting against, controlling or providing a public health response to the incidence or spread of infection or contamination in England and Wales . All expenses of, and incidental to, the constitution of a port health district shall be payable by the port health authority.

Any reference to infecting or contaminating humans, or a person, thing or premises, includes a reference to passing the source of an infection or contamination to humans, or to the person, thing or premises. Regulations under section 45C may not include provision imposing a restriction or requirement by virtue of subsection of that section unless the appropriate Minister considers, when making the regulations, that the restriction or requirement is proportionate to what is sought to be achieved by imposing it. Any reference in this Act to an order constituting a port health district shall be construed as including a reference to any order made under this section for the amendment of the original order. Where the Secretary of State proposes to make an order amending or revoking any such order, he shall give notice of his intention of the port health authority concerned and to every authority which is, or under the proposed order will be, a constituent authority. Where the Secretary of State proposes to make an order under this section, he shall give notice of the proposal to every riparian authority who will under the order be liable to contribute to the expenses of the port health authority. An Act to consolidate certain enactments relating to the control of disease and to the establishment and functions of port health authorities, including enactments relating to burial and cremation and to the regulation of common lodging–houses and canal boats, with amendments to give effect to recommendations of the Law Commission.

Local Authority Social Services Act 1970E+W

For the external—physical as well as socio-cultural and political—environment to affect health and disease over the life course , it has to cause perturbations of the internal physiology . The health effects of the external environment result from dysregulated neuroendocrine and CNS network functions as described, and if persistent have epigenetic consequences through gene regulatory effects as described by the emerging field of social genomics . At the organ level, network interactions between different organs determine the phenotypes of health and disease . Indeed, the HPA axis is credited a central neuroendocrine role, as it has been shown to have key interface functions between the biological and psychosocial domains. At the experiential level, the brain incorporates the perception and appraisal of the current environmental experience .

  • JS developed the ideas for this paper, and RM provided substantial inputs into its refinement.
  • The vascular tree is a space-filling and volume preserving structure; its fractal nature allows even blood flow across the network and connects organ systems .
  • Demonstrate extensive detailed critical knowledge in global health and infectious diseases informed by evidence based learning.
  • However, when a chronic stressor is perceived , this physiological recovery may not occur.
  • Any expense incurred by any such authority or officer acting bona fide as mentioned in subsection is to be borne and repaid out of the fund applicable by the authority to its functions of executing the provision in question.

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Animal disease guidance and contingency planning

Rather, diseases emerge as a consequence of interactions among multiple physiological networks—in particular those that regulate gene networks , activities of the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis , as well as the bioenergetics within mitochondria in concert with other metabolic pathways . These physiological networks are sensitive to changes in psychosocial and environmental parameters and thus may—through positive and/or negative feedback—either enhance health or contribute to the emergence of disease . While particular socio-cultural and environmental contexts constrain a person’s system, recursive bottom-up physiological actions aim to control the cellular and organ functions that allow the person’s system to emerge toward the experiential states of health and non-health . Dynamic physiological network responses to perturbations provide adaptive homeostatic dynamics that allow a person to transition to different stable health states across the life trajectory and the inevitable accumulation of diseases and frailty (33–35). Health is a state of the whole person, consistent with the word’s Old-English etymology of hal meaning whole. The term illness refers to the state of not being whole, and needs to be distinguished from disease defined by the presence of identifiable pathology or dysfunction .